Organoids are generated from both pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and adult stem cells (ASCs). Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is influenced by growth factors and extracellular matrices (ECM) that provide the required scaffold to support cell attachment and growth during organoid formation. Hydrogels such as Corning Matrigel® Matrix and Corning® Collagen are popular scaffold choices to support cell expansion in organoid cultures.
Stem cells and/or organ progenitors from normal or diseased tissue can be mixed with Matrigel matrix or Collagen to create mini-organs of the kidney, thyroid, liver, brain, lung, intestine, prostate, and pancreas. Organoids support advancements in the study of organogenesis, disease modeling, and subsequent patient-specific therapies. For example, the combination of genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 and organoid cultures allows researchers to evaluate DNA repair of patient-specific mutations found in certain cancers and perform genetic screens. Hydrogels such as Collagen and Matrigel Matrix can be used as bio-inks to allow precise positioning and embedding of living cells/organoids during 3D bioprinting. Organoids are also being used as physiologically relevant models for the development of new therapeutic drug candidates.