Glass Glossary Page | Display Technologies | Corning

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{"data":[{"keyValue":"A","indexValue":0,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Active Plate","id":"activeplate","description":"<p>Another term for the glass substrate that contains the array or thin-film transistors (TFTs) in an active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). This is also known as an array or backplane.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"AMLCD (See also LCD)","id":"amlcd","description":"<p>Active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). A liquid crystal-based display technology that uses a switch at each pixel to create high resolution and fast response times. One type of LCD is known as thin-film transistor (TFT)-LCD, in which the switch used is a thin-film transistor. Displays based on this technology range from as small as 1\" diagonal up to 40\" diagonal.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Amorphous Silicon (a-Si)","id":"amorphoussilicon","description":"<p>A semiconductor film used as the active layer in most active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs). It is based upon the electronic properties of a glass alloy of silicon and hydrogen.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Array","id":"array","description":"<p>Rows and columns of thin-film transistors (TFTs) made on a glass substrate to form the pixel-addressing component of an active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). The TFTs are made by depositing a series of films via chemical-vapor deposition and patterning these films by photolithography. This process is very similar to the manufacturing process for silicon-based microelectronics. This is also known as a backplane.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"B","indexValue":1,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Backlight","id":"backlight","description":"<p>The light source for an active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD), located behind the panel. It is usually made up of several fluorescent lamps, a light guide, reflectors, and brightness-enhancing films.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Backplane","id":"backplane","description":"<p>Another name for thin-film transistor (TFT) array (see Array). TFT backplanes can be used to make active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Black Matrix","id":"blackmatrix","description":"<p>A light-shielding film that separates the pixels of the color filter.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Borosilicate","id":"borosilicate","description":"<p>A family of glass compositions in which boron trioxide and silicon dioxide are major components.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Brightness","id":"brightness","description":"<p>This is the measure of the luminosity in a display.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Burn-in","id":"burnin","description":"<p>A tendency for an image that is shown on a display over a long period of time to become permanently fixed on the display. This is most often seen in emissive displays such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) and plasma, because chemical changes can occur in the phosphors when exposed repeatedly to the same electrical signals. This is most noticeable in electronic signage such as in airport information displays, or displays that are used with video games, and is less noticeable in consumer televisions.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"C","indexValue":2,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"COG","id":"cog","description":"<p>Chip-on-glass, a method of bonding driver-integrated circuits (ICs) directly to the edges of active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for smaller packages, higher quality, and improved ruggedness.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Color Filter","id":"colorfilter","description":"<p>A component of the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) panel. The color filter contains primary colors \u2013 red, green, and blue \u2013 that enable the LCD to produce more than 16 million colors.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Contrast","id":"contrast","description":"<p>Dynamic range of light and dark values in a picture.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Corning 1737 Glass","id":"corningglass","description":"<p>This was the predecessor to EAGLE2000®, glass. This glass was used for producing active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) substrates and was the standard when it was introduced in 1994. This glass is also referred to as Code 1737 glass.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"CRT","id":"crt","description":"<p>Cathode ray tube (CRT), a technology used in many traditional television sets and desktop computers. A CRT uses a vacuum tube that produces images when an electron beam strikes a phosphorescent surface. CRT devices are bulkier and require more space than active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) devices.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"CTE","id":"cte","description":"<p>Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The slope of the expansion versus temperature curve. For glasses, it is typically expressed as a value multiplied by 10-7/oC.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"D","indexValue":3,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Direct view","id":"directview","description":"<p>A term used to refer to active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs), cathode ray tubes (CRTs), plasma displays, and other displays that create the exact image that the user views. In contrast, projection displays need magnification optics to create the final image that is viewed.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"DLPTM ","id":"dlptm","description":"<p>Digital Light Processor (DLPTM ), a proprietary technology developed by Texas Instruments as a microdisplay projection element. DLP uses an array of tiny mirrors on a silicon chip to reflect light from a projection lamp to form an image. Requires a lamp, color wheel, and optics to make front-projection and rear-projection displays.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"DMD","id":"dmd","description":"<p>Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD), a generic term for Texas Instruments' DLPTM chip.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Driver IC","id":"driveric","description":"<p>Microprocessors (\u201cchips\u201d) that send data to (address) the rows and columns of pixels in an active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) to create the image. This functionality can be integrated into the panel if a low-temperature, poly-crystalline silicon (LTPS) backplane is used; otherwise, the driver-integrated circuits (ICs) are attached to the display via a tape-automated bonding method (TAB) or are attached to the edges of the display (chip-on-glass or COG).<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"E","indexValue":4,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"EAGLE2000® ","id":"eagle","description":"<p>Created in 2000 and superseded by EAGLE XG glass substrates.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"EAGLEAPTTM ","id":"eagleapttm","description":"<p>Similar to EAGLE2000, but this glass is specially treated so that it has increased thermal stability, as required for low-temperature and super-low-temperature poly-crystalline silicon (LTPS) processing.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"EL","id":"el","description":"<p>Electroluminescent (EL). This is a display technology based on the light-emitting ability of certain phosphors (typically ZnS) in an electric field. EL displays can be further subdivided into thick-film, thin-film, alternating-current, and direct-current type displays.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Electrochromic Display","id":"electrochromicdisplay","description":"<p>This is a reflective display that uses electrochromic materials to switch pixels on and off. Electrochromic materials change color when the oxidation state of the material is changed by an applied voltage. Electrically switchable automobile rear-view mirrors are an example of this technology.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Electrophoretic Display","id":"electrophoreticdisplay","description":"<p>This is a reflective display that uses electrophoresis to switch pixels on and off. Electrophoresis is the motion of charged particles suspended in a liquid in response to an electric field. Positively charged particles move toward the cathode, and negatively charged particles move toward the anode. If these particles are colored, the display shows different colors to the user as the particles move. E Ink and Gyricon are examples of this type of display.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Emissive","id":"emissive","description":"<p>A direct-view display, such as cathode ray tube (CRT), field emission display (FED), plasma, electroluminescent (EL), and organic light emitting diode (OLED), where the light generation, switching, and coloring are all done at once by the display. These displays do not need a separate backlight to provide light for the image. See also Transmissive, Reflective, and Projection.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"F","indexValue":5,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Fabrication Lines","id":"fabricationlines","description":"<p>The production lines that Corning\u2019s customers use to create their products. The customers take our glass substrates and apply their own processes to create a final product. These are also referred to as fabs.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"FED","id":"fed","description":"<p>A field emission display (FED) is an emissive flat-panel display that uses many small electron emitters to excite a phosphor screen and emit light. Also known as thin cathode-ray tube (CRT) or carbon nanotube FED. This technology is still in the development phase and is not currently available commercially.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Finishing","id":"finishing","description":"<p>This is the cold processing of the glass article to form the final product. Processes include cutting, grinding, polishing, and washing.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Forming","id":"forming","description":"<p>This is the processing of molten-liquid glass into the basic shape of the end product. Typical forming processes include blowing and pressing, but for sheet glass, the typical forming processes include float forming and various downdraw processes, such as Corning\u2019s proprietary fusion process.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"FPD","id":"fpd","description":"<p>Flat panel display (FPD). FPD can be used to refer to any of a number of \"flat\" display technologies including liquid crystal display (LCD), plasma, field emission display (FED), or others.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Fusion","id":"fusion","description":"<p>This is the proprietary process through which Corning produces LCD glass substrates. The fusion process begins when raw materials are blended into a glass composition, which is melted and conditioned to be homogeneous and virtually defect free. The molten glass is fed into a trough called an \u201cisopipe,\u201d filling it until the glass flows evenly over both sides. It then rejoins, or fuses, at the bottom, where it is drawn down to form a continuous sheet of flat glass.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"G","indexValue":6,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"H","indexValue":7,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"HDTV","id":"hdtv","description":"<p>High definition television (HDTV), a term that can refer to certain TV sets or programming that conforms to a set of standards that define next-generation television resolution, sound, and format. The most common HDTV formats in the U.S. are 480p, 720p, and 1080i, which correspond to lines of resolution and progressive or interlaced scanning. Each country or region has different HDTV definitions and standards.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"HTPS","id":"htps","description":"<p>High-temperature poly-crystalline silicon (HTPS), fabrication of poly-crystalline silicon through high-temperature (>900C) processing steps. This process is used to make small thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) for projection displays, and requires the use of a synthetic-quartz substrate.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"I","indexValue":8,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"J","indexValue":9,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"K","indexValue":10,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"L","indexValue":11,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Large-generation Size Glass","id":"largegenerationsizeglass","description":"<p>Substrates that are Generation 5 and larger are classified as large generation. Large-generation size substrates provide substantial cost efficiencies and greater output per substrate. Large-generation substrates not only allow customers to get more panels per sheet, but also to produce larger panels.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"LCD (See also AMLCD)","id":"lcd","description":"<p>Active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). A display technology that uses a switch at each pixel to create high-resolution and fast-response times. One type of LCD in which the switch used is a thin-film transistor (TFT), is known as a TFT-LCD. Displays based on this technology range from as small as 1\" diagonal up to 40\" diagonal.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"LCD Module","id":"lcdmodule","description":"<p>A thin-film transistor (passive) or active matrix liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) that contains all components, including backlight and driver integrated circuits (ICs), and is ready to be integrated into an end product such as a TV, monitor, notebook PC, or other device. This term is often used interchangeably with LCD panel.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"LCD Panel","id":"lcdpanel","description":"<p>A thin-film transistor (passive) or active matrix liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) that includes the array, color filter, and liquid crystal. May also include a backlight and driver-integrated circuits (ICs), but sometimes is used to refer to just the glass-liquid crystal composite. Often used interchangeably with LCD module.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"LCD Projection","id":"lcdprojection","description":"<p>A projection technology that uses small thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), of 2\u201d diagonal or less, as picture elements. The light from the projection lamp is switched and given color by one of three TFT-LCDs, and then is combined into a picture by optics, and finally projected onto a screen. These can be used to make a rear-projection TV or a front-projection data projector.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"LCoS","id":"lcos","description":"<p>Liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), a type of reflective micro-display that can be used to make front-projection, rear-projection, or near-eye displays. A thin-film transistor (TFT) array is made on a silicon chip and becomes a display by adding a liquid crystal layer to control the reflection of light off the chip. A color wheel or color scroll, a light source, and a lens array are other system components needed for LCoS projection.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Lifetime","id":"lifetime","description":"<p>A measure of the durability of a display, expressed in how many hours of operation it takes for a display to show half the brightness as compared to the brightness it showed when it was new. For example, if a display is rated for 50,000 hours lifetime, it should take 50,000 hours of cumulative operation before it is half as bright as compared to when it was new. Most displays degrade slowly over time so the effect is not noticeable unless compared directly with a new display.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"LTPS","id":"ltps","description":"<p>Low-temperature poly-crystalline silicon (LTPS). Lasers, or other low-temperature energy sources, are used to crystallize amorphous silicon into a more conductive state known as poly-crystalline silicon (p-Si). This poly-crystalline silicon layer is patterned through photolithography to make a thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane. Active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs) made with LTPS backplanes are capable of higher resolution and better aperture ratio than LCDs made on amorphous silicon backplanes. Driver-integrated circuits (ICs) can also be integrated into the backplane, for better form factor and higher quality. This is especially useful for small displays for mobile devices where smaller panels enable smaller and lightweight end products.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"M","indexValue":12,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Melting","id":"melting","description":"<p>The process of converting the raw materials that are used in glass-making into a uniform, homogenous liquid. This involves both melting and dissolution reactions of the raw materials.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"MEMS","id":"mems","description":"<p>Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a class of micron-scale devices made using semiconductor processes that integrate electronic and mechanical functions. Texas Instrument's DLPTM projection element is one example of MEMS. Iridigm has also made a direct-view reflective display with MEMS technology. MEMS are also used for sensors, such as accelerometers and optical switches.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Microcorrugation","id":"microcorrugation","description":"<p>This refers to the fine-scale wrinkling of a glass sheet as a result of forming. This is typically seen with the forming of a thin glass sheet in a float process; it arises from a non-uniform glass response to the applied tensile or stretching force.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"N","indexValue":13,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"O","indexValue":14,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"OLED","id":"oled","description":"<p>Organic light emitting diode (OLED), an emissive flat-panel display that uses organic compounds to emit light. OLEDs can be passive or active matrix. Passive-matrix devices are easier to make, but not capable of full color or high resolution. Currently, active-matrix devices use a poly-crystalline silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) array, similar to low-temperature poly-crystalline silicon (LTPS) active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs). There has been limited production to date because of short product lifetimes and differential aging rates of the OLED materials. This is also known as Organic EL.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Organic EL","id":"organicel","description":"<p>Organic electroluminescent (EL). This is an organic analog to the EL type display in which the active material is organic. This is another name for organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"P","indexValue":15,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Passive matrix LCDs","id":"passivematrixlcds","description":"<p>These are the predecessors to active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs); these displays do not incorporate a thin-film transistor (TFT) or switch at each pixel. As a result, they tend to have lower resolution, slower refresh rates, and poorer viewing angles than active matrix LCDs.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Photolithography","id":"photolithography","description":"<p>The patterning step of the process by which transistors are made for displays or microprocessors. Thin films of silicon or other materials are deposited on a substrate, then covered with another material (photoresist) that reacts to light. This material is exposed to light through a mask that is patterned for one layer of the transistor. Then the exposed area is etched away, taking the underlying thin film with it. The photoresist is cleaned off next, leaving the patterned thin film. This is repeated several times with different thin films to create the transistor array.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Pixel","id":"pixel","description":"<p>Short for \"picture element,\" a pixel is the basic unit of information on a display. It can be made up of different colored sub-pixels.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Plasma","id":"plasma","description":"<p>Emissive flat-panel display technology that uses a gas plasma to excite phosphors and make them glow. Used for large-size displays (typically 32\" diagonal and up), but has a limited market because of the high cost of production. Also called plasma display panel (PDP).<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Polarize","id":"polarize","description":"<p>This is a material that selectively transmits light with a given polarization. Polarizers are critical in the operation of most active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs), as the liquid crystal manipulates polarized light. A twisted-nematic (TN) LCD typically has polarizers on both sides of the LCD cell.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Poly-crystalline silicon TFT-LCD","id":"polycrystallinesilicontftlcd","description":"<p>Type of thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) that uses transistors made from poly-crystalline silicon rather than amorphous silicon.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Projection","id":"projection","description":"<p>A display that uses from one to three small emissive, reflective, or transmissive displays to create a picture that is enlarged by a set of optics to the final viewable size. The light is provided by a projection lamp, the switching is done by the small displays, and the color can be provided by the small displays or separate color elements. See also Emissive, Transmissive, and Reflective.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"p-Si","id":"psi","description":"<p>Poly-Si represents a silicon film consisting of many tiny silicon-crystallization segments. Polysilicon is used in large-area electronics as a layer in the thin-film transistors.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"p-Si Glass Substrates","id":"psiglasssubstrates","description":"<p>Glass that is made of poly-crystalline silicon, rather than amorphous silicon, and used as layers in thin-film transistors (TFTs). P-Si glass substrates enable thinner, lighter mobile handsets that offer higher resolution and greater functionality.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"Q","indexValue":16,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"R","indexValue":17,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Reflective","id":"reflective","description":"<p>A direct-view display, such as reflective active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD), which uses ambient light to create an image. Most digital watches and calculators use reflective LCDs, although some color versions have been developed for mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). See also Emissive, Transmissive, and Projection. Emerging reflective technologies include electrophoretic (made by E Ink and others), electrochromic (made by NTERA and others), and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based (made by Iridigm and others).<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Refresh Rate","id":"refreshrate","description":"<p>The time interval required for the electronics to fully address a display. This rate determines the capability of the display to show video images.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Resolution","id":"resolution","description":"<p>The number of pixels available for information display. More pixels (higher resolution) enables finer details to be displayed and generally results in a better image quality.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"S","indexValue":18,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Silica","id":"silica","description":"<p>Silicon dioxide; this oxide forms the basis for most glass compositions.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"STN","id":"stn","description":"<p>A type of high-performance passive matrix display based on a particular type of liquid crystal (super-twisted-nematic).<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Sub-Pixel","id":"subpixel","description":"<p>A sub-portion of a pixel showing only one of the primary colors \u2013 green, red, or blue. Three or more sub-pixels make up a single pixel.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"System-on-glass (SOG)","id":"systemonglass","description":"<p>A thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) that has additional functionality, such as memory or computation, built into its array electronics. This can refer to almost any level of integration, from driver-integrated circuits (ICs), to a full central-processing unit (CPU). Requires-low temperature poly-crystalline silicon (LTPS) backplanes, and is typically most valuable for small portable devices.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"T","indexValue":19,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"TFT","id":"tft","description":"<p>Thin-film transistor (TFT). Electronic technology upon which active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are based. The foundation of the TFT is a semiconductor layer (typically based on silicon) which can switch current flow on or off by the application of an electric field.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"TFT Array","id":"tftarray","description":"<p>A component of the liquid crystal display (LCD). The glass substrate containing the thin-film transistors used to switch the sub-pixels on or off.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Transflective LCD","id":"transflectivelcd","description":"<p>An active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) that combines reflective and transmissive qualities.<br>In dark ambient-light environments, the backlight can be used to provide light for the display; in bright ambient-light environments, the backlight can be switched off and the display used in reflective mode to save battery life. Most often used in personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones.<\/p>","isWithImage":false},{"title":"Transmissive","id":"transmissive","description":"<p>A direct-view display, such as an active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD), where the light is created by a source and is colored and switched separately. The light that an LCD emits is created by a fluorescent or light-emitting diode (LED) backlight, the switching is provided by the thin-film transistor (TFT) array, and the color is provided by the color filter. See also Emissive, Reflective, and Projection.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"U","indexValue":20,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"V","indexValue":21,"isAvailable":true,"item":[{"title":"Viewing Angle","id":"viewingangle","description":"<p>The angle at which the viewer must be in comparison to the screen in order to see the image on a display. For example, a 0° horizontal viewing angle is directly in front of the display and a 90° horizontal viewing angle is directly to the side. Emissive displays show the same brightness and color regardless of viewing angle; however, rear-projection displays and transmissive displays can show some differences in color, brightness, and gray scale, with the most difference being noticed at the steepest viewing angles.<\/p>","isWithImage":false}]},{"keyValue":"W","indexValue":22,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"X","indexValue":23,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"Y","indexValue":24,"isAvailable":false},{"keyValue":"Z","indexValue":25,"isAvailable":false}]}