Emission Testing


Driving Down On-Highway Particulate Emissions
SAE #: 2006-01-0916 | View PDF 

SAE Paper 2006-01-0916(c) 2006 SAE International.  This paper is posted on this website with permission from SAE International. This SAE paper is for viewing only, and may not be printed, copied, distributed or forwarded to others, or used by others.

AUTHORS:
D. B. Kittelson, W. F. Watts and J. P. Johnson - University of Minnesota, Department of Mechanical Engineering
C. J. Rowntree - BP plc, Global Fuels Technology
S. P. Goodier, M. J. Payne, W. H. Preston and C. P. Warrens - BP plc, Global Lubricants Technology
M. Ortiz and U. Zink - Corning Incorporated
C. Goersmann, M. V. Twigg and A. P. Walker - Johnson Matthey Catalysts

ABSTRACT:
It has been reported that particulate emissions from diesel vehicles could be associated with damaging human health, global warming and a reduction in air quality. These particles cover a very large size range, typically 3 to 10 000 nm. Filters in the vehicle exhaust systems can substantially reduce particulate emissions but until very recently it was not possible to directly characterise actual on-road emissions from a vehicle. This paper presents the first study of the effect of filter systems on the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during real-world driving. The presence of sulfur in the fuel and in the engine lubricant can lead to significant emissions of sulfate particles < 30 nm in size (nanoparticles). We have demonstrated that when using low sulfur fuel in combination with a uniquely formulated low sulfur lubricant and a suitable filter system that the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty vehicle were reduced to the levels already present in the ambient environment.


Effect of Thermal Mass and Aging on CO-NOx Crossover and Light Off Behavior
SAE #: 2005-01-1106 | View PDF 

SAE Paper 2005-01-1106(c) 2006 SAE International.  This paper is posted on this website with permission from SAE International. This SAE paper is for viewing only, and may not be printed, copied, distributed or forwarded to others, or used by others.

AUTHOR:
Katherine W. Hughes - Corning Incorporated

ABSTRACT:
This paper explores the effect of the aging cycle and thermal mass differences on CO-NOx crossover and light-off profiles. This analysis provides a tool to assist in design by defining a window of performance in the converter to be used in matching to a window of operation in the calibration.

This analysis studies 400/4, 900/2, and 900/1 substrate configurations. These represent a direct comparison of constant cell density on the one hand and constant bulk density on the other. The air/fuel sweeps and light-off ramps were performed at steps throughout the aging cycle, yielding comparative information about the products and information about how their relative performance changes throughout the life of the converter. Emissions and temperature were examined to evaluate performance.